从私人收藏到国家博物馆——荷兰库勒-勒穆愽物馆收藏的“中国白”瓷器

小陶陶 2021-12-08 11:19:56   作者:陈伊鸿 翻译:孙延燕1658
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文章摘要:外国人眼中的“中国白”|从私人收藏到国家博物馆——荷兰库勒-勒穆愽物馆收藏的“中国白”瓷器(作者:陈伊鸿 翻译:孙延燕)

编者按:

2011年11月,由北京故宫博物院、中国古陶瓷学会、福建省文物局、德化县人民政府共同主办的“2011中国瓷都・德化密学术研讨会”在瓷都德化举办,近百位国内外博物馆馆长、从事陶瓷文化研究的专家学者齐聚瓷都德化,以“中国白的故乡、瓷艺术的摇篮”为主题,共同研讨深厚的德化窑陶瓷文化。

研讨会共提交专题论文39篇,其中不乏外国专家的作品。与会的专家学者以翔实的图文史料为佐证,从学术专业的角度对化窑在国内外陶瓷文化领域的历史地位和影响做了全面深刻的阐述,是一笔难得的丰硕的学术成果。

近期,《外国人眼中的“中国白”》栏目将再次回顾刊载该研讨会的相关论文,并对其中的论文进行翻译,为广大德化陶瓷文化研究爱好者提供学习、交流、参考。

From private collection to state museum, the history of the Kröller-Müller Museum in Holland

Mrs.Drs. Tan, I Hong, an independent art-historian

The Kröller-müller Museum owes its existence to Helene Kröller-Müller(1869-1939), the daughter of a German industrialist. In 1888 she married a Dutchman, Anton Kröller, who became a director of her father's company. Helene began collecting decorative arts around 1905. She bought her first painting in 1907. Around this time an important Dutch art connaisseur, H.P.Bremmer, became her personal adviser. With his help Helene collected almost 11 500 art works.

库勒-勒穆博物馆归功于德国企业家的女儿海琳・库勒・穆勒(1869-1939)。1888年海琳嫁给了一个荷兰人安东・库勒,她的丈夫后来成为她父亲公司的老板。大约从1905年开始,海琳开始进行装饰艺术品的收藏。1907年,她购买了她生平的第一件绘画作品。也就是在此时,荷兰一位重要的艺术品收藏家H.P. Bremmer成为了她的私人顾问。在他的帮助下,海琳收藏了近11500件艺术作品。

(Helene Kröller-Müller (1869-1939)海琳库勒穆勒肖像(1869-1939年))

The acquisitions were funded from the capital amassed by her husband as a director of Wm.H. Müller & Co, a German Trading Company. In the 1920’s and the 1930’s the company was severely hit by the economic recession and the Kröller-müllers were threatened with losing their estate and their art collection.

海琳艺术品的收藏主要受她丈夫的资金帮助,那时他的丈夫是德国一家贸易公司的老板。在二十世纪二三十年代,公司受到经济萧条的影响而备受打击,库勒・穆勒因此差点失去它的资产和艺术收藏。

(Figure of Guanyin seated on rockwork with a boy on her lap, 1640 19x7. 3x6cm 坐岩观音像,膝抱有一小童,约1640年,19×7.3×6厘米)

(Two women, a hare and a parrot on a piece of rock, early 18th century, 11x6x6.6cm 两位贵妇立于岩石上,另有一只野兔和鹦鹉陪伴于身前,18世纪早期,11 x6 x6.6厘米)

(Seated Deity, on a low seat late 17 -early 18 Century,21.1x9.5x7.6cm坐椅神像,约17世纪后期至18世纪早期,21.1×9.5×7.6厘米)

As a precaution, in 1935 Helene donated her entire collection to the Dutch State with the condition that the State would built a museum to house the collection on the estate which is now the National Park De Hoge Veluwe".Helene s dream became true in 1938 with the opening of the State Museum Kröller-müller in the small town Otterlo in the province Gelderland. Helene was the first director until her death in 1939.

为了防患于未然,在1935年,海琳将她的全部收藏都捐献给了国家,条件是国家要在如今被称为霍格费吕沃家国家公园的地方建一座专门的博物馆来收藏她的藏品。海琳的理想在1938年成为了现实,库勒-穆勒家级博物馆于同年在位于荷兰的格尔德兰省( (Gelderland)的小城奥特洛( Otterlo)正式开馆。海琳也成了博物馆的第一任馆长,直到她1939年去世。

(An pair of Buddhist Guardian Lions (Dogs of Fo), late 17 -early 18 century,34x8.9x12.5cm佛教对狮(护佛) 约17世纪后期至18世纪早期,34×8.9×12.5厘米)

(Vase with prunus spray reliefs,18th century 15.7x7.9樱花枝浮雕花瓶,18世纪,15.7×7.9厘米)

Her collection included many paintings such as 91 pieces from the famous painter Vincent van Gogh(1853-1890).She also wanted to express the spiritual experience of art, which she did by collecting a number of Madonna portraits and classic Chinese religious works of art, such as jade, soap stone Daoist figures, antique Buddhas, all kinds of Chinese porcelain, Blanc de Chine porcelain figures such as Goddess of Mercy Guan Yin' s in which she could see a pure form of spirituality. She would put them on her writing desk and in dinner room cupboard etc. She has 53 Blanc de Chine porcelain pieces of different shapes in her museum.

海琳的收藏内容广泛,其中包括许多绘画作品,例如著名画家文森特・凡・高的91件绘画作品就被她收藏。与此同时,她也希望通过收集的诸多圣母玛利亚肖像画和如玉器、滑石道教塑像、古典佛像等各种各样的中国古典宗教题材的艺术品来表达对一些艺术作品的精神感受。诸如“中国白”的德化瓷塑像中的观音女神几乎可以看作是完全意义上的精神圣灵。海琳常常将她们放在写字台或餐厅的橱柜上。她的博物馆里藏有53件不同形态的“中国白”瓷器作品。

I am grateful to the Museum for providing their photos materials for research and in particular to Mr. drs. Bas Mühren, curator who has given his time to show me the collections of the Museum.

我非常感谢博物馆能够将他们的照片资料提供给我作为研究的参考,特别是要感谢馆长巴斯穆勒先生他抽出时间向我介绍博物馆的馆藏。

责任编辑:陈美珠

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